Rubber Hand Illusion - Do I Experience My Body As My Own?
There is a neurological study called the Rubber Hand Illusion, which was first introduced by Botvinick and Cohen in 1998 and then developed more fully by Ehrsson, Spence, and Passingham (2004). The goal of the study was to explore "the way in which the brain integrates sensory and and visual inputs to represent the body in space and interpret reality." (Wikipedia: Body Transfer Illusion)
In the rubber hand experiment, a person is asked to place one hand on the table and the other hand in their lap and out of sight. The researcher then places a rubber hand on the table and begins to stroke the middle finger of the participant's real hand while also stroking the same middle finger of the rubber hand. They do this for about two minutes. This causes the participant to "experience" that both of his middle fingers are being stroked.
This causes the brain to mistakenly "interpret" that the rubber hand must be a part of the body.
"The experiment showed that if the two hands were stroked synchronously and in the same direction, the subjects began to experience the rubber hand as their own. When asked to use their right hand to point to their left hand, most of the time they pointed toward the rubber hand. If the real and rubber hands were stroked in different directions or at different times, the subjects did not experience the rubber hand as their own." (Wikipedia: Body Transfer Illusion)